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A recent study published in the Public Library of Sciences journal sought to determine the effect of Omega-3s on memory function. Healthy young subjects were supplemented with 2 grams of Omega-3 EPA + DHA daily (930 mg EPA + 750 DHA) for six months.

Over six months levels of the Omega-3s in red blood cell membranes (the best measure of tissue levels—where the omega-3s work) were increased in association with improvement in working memory. The researchers also tried to determine whether Omega-3 intake affected dopamine storage in the striatum of the brain, as measured by PET scans (positron-emission transmission scans). They did not find an effect, however, suggesting that dopamine storage in the striatum is not the mechanism by which Omega-3s affect working memory.

The interesting take away from this study is that young healthy people—who already have relatively good memory—were able to improve their working memory by taking Omega-3s. The researchers noted, “Before seeing this data, I would have said it was impossible to move young healthy individuals above their cognitive best. We found that members of this population can enhance their working memory performance even further, despite their already being at the top of their cognitive game.”

“So many of the previous studies have been done with the elderly or people with medical conditions, leaving this unique population of young adults unaddressed,” stated Matthew Muldoon, an investigator of the study, “Can we help the brain achieve its full potential by adapting our healthy behaviors in our young adult life? We found that we absolutely can.”

More studies will be needed to determine just how these beneficial fats work in the brain to improve memory. In the meantime, keep taking your Omega-3!

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Sinusitis involves inflammation of the sinuses. About 30 million cases of sinusitis occur in the United States annually, yet its cause can be difficult to detect. For a long time, it was thought that the sinuses were sterile, but scientists now know that microbes do exist in the sinuses. A recent study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine  has found that, not only do microbes exist in the sinuses, but that a loss of microbial diversity occurs in those people with sinusitis when compared to healthy people.

Specifically, people with sinusitis had higher amounts of Cornebacterium tuburculostearicum, while healthy people were colonized with Lactobacillus sakei, a bacteria that helps prevent the development of sinusitis, based on previous studies. The lead researcher, Susan Lynch, suggests that the sinuses are home to a diverse microbiome, which includes beneficial bacteria that help protect against sinus infection.

Often, sinusitis is treated with antibiotics, yet the original cause of infection may not be bacterial at all. Sinusitis is one condition for which antibiotic overuse is cautioned against. Another author of the study, Andrew Goldberg, stated, “The premise for our understanding of chronic sinusitis and therapeutic treatment appears to be wrong, and a different therapeutic strategy seems appropriate.”

Although too early to draw conclusions about specific alternative treatments, this study alludes to the eventual use of probiotics in the treatment of sinusitis. More studies will be needed to determine what bacteria are helpful, and what treatment might work.

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